## An Efficient Method of Serving Many Small Files

Certain types of web content, such as map tiles and image pyramids1, require serving many small files, but this can often be inconvenient. Transferring a large number of small files over SCP or SFTP is very slow, and managing these files on disk can also be unpleasant. The transfer problem can be solved by adding the files to a tarball before transferring them, transferring the tarball, and untarring them once transfered. However, this is an extra step, and it doesn’t address the file management problem. Mapbox devised a solution for this problem for map tiles with their MBTiles format. This container format stores map tiles in a SQLite database, and a server implementation is then used to serve tiles directly from the container. This cleanly solves the aforementioned transfer and storage problems, but it is not general purpose and only works for map tiles. This specialization allows for additional optimizations such as deduplicating identical map tiles, but it means it can’t be used for storing image pyramids or other uses.

The use of a SQLite database container format can also work as a general purpose solution, provided a general purpose database key is used. Thus, I propose a general purpose “FilesDB” format as a generic solution. This format consists of an SQLite database containing a `files` table, which in turn contains a `filename` column of type `text` and a `data` column of type `blob`. A directory of files is stored in the format by storing each files in the directory in the database with the file’s path relative to the the base directory2 as the `filename` and the file’s contents as the `data`. As a proof of concept, I wrote a Python script for generating a `.filesdb` container and a rudimentary server for serving the files from the format in Go. These, along with a basic specification document, are available from a repository on GitHub.

1. Used by Pannellum‘s multires format, for example.

2. Using Unix directory separators (`/`

## Automatic Camera Clock Synchronization under Linux

The one feature I really wish my DSLR had was geotagging. Since my camera lacks this feature, I need to record a GPS track with an external device from which positions can be extracted based on timestamps for geotagging. This requires the camera’s clock to be set accurately, which I want anyway, but doing so manually in the camera’s menu is a bit of a pain. In the past I’ve only recorded GPS tracks for geotagging sporadically, as it required carrying around a dedicated GPS receiver. However, I finally bought a smartphone a few months ago, so I now always carry a device that’s capable of recording GPS tracks.1 This caused me to revisit the clock synchronization problem.

Under Linux, gPhoto2 supports synchronizing the camera’s internal clock with the computer’s clock for many cameras, including mine, a Canon EOS Rebel T2i. As long as one’s computer is configured to use NTP, this results in quite accurate timestamps on photos. In my case, under Linux Mint 17, running this synchronization manually involves plugging in the camera, unmounting the camera after it gets automounted so gPhoto2 can access it, and then running the appropriate gPhoto2 command to synchronize the camera’s clock. To automate this process, one just needs to add a `udev` rule to run the clock synchronization command automatically, before the camera is mounted. I wrote such a rule. Since the rule responsible for mounting the camera is in `40-libgphoto2-6.rules`, the new rule that synchronizes the camera’s clock should be saved as `/etc/udev/rules.d/39-sync-camera-times.rules` so that it runs right before the camera is automounted. The contents of this file are as follows:

```ACTION!="add", GOTO="sync_camera_time_rules_end"
SUBSYSTEM!="usb", GOTO="sync_camera_time_rules_end"
ENV{ID_USB_INTERFACES}=="", IMPORT{builtin}="usb_id"
ENV{ID_USB_INTERFACES}=="*:060101:*", RUN+="/usr/bin/gphoto2 --set-config syncdatetime=1"

LABEL="sync_camera_time_rules_end"
```

Now the camera’s internal clock will be synchronized with the computer’s clock any time the camera is plugged in. Note that this sets the camera’s clock to UTC, which makes the most sense anyway as the EXIF time data doesn’t include a time zone.2 I’ve tested the rule with a Canon EOS Rebel T2i under Linux Mint 17, but it should also work for any other camera for which gPhoto2 supports clock synchronization and under Ubuntu 14.04 and similar Linux distros. Obviously, gPhoto2 needs to be installed.

1. Transferring the recorded tracks to a computer is easier too.

2. In my opinion, this is a significant improvement over the automatic clock synchronization in Canon’s EOS Utility for Windows, which insists on syncing the camera’s clock to local time.

Last month, I purchased a 6000 BTU Midea window air conditioner (branded Arctic King WWK+06CR5) and thought it would be convenient if I could control it remotely. Doing so would involve decoding the remote’s IR signals; for this, I used a USB Infrared Toy and the PyIrToy Python library. Control signals for other Midea air conditioners have previously been decoded, providing a starting point. Although the signals transmitted by my air conditioner’s R09B/BGCE remote are similar to these previous remotes, they are also sufficiently different such that the actual data transmitted shares little in common. The signal is transmitted on a 38 kHz carrier, with a time base, T, of 21 carrier cycles, approximately 1.1 ms. Each bit consists of the IR transmitter off for 1T followed by it turned on for either 1T for `0` or 3T for `1`. Each frame consists of a start pulse, six bytes of data, a middle pulse, and then the inverse of the six data bytes. The start pulse consists of the transmitter off for 8T and then on for 8T; the middle pulse consists of the transmitter off for 1T, on for 9.5T, off for 4T, and then on for 4T.
Creating a new document class file and then using this class is usually considered the “correct” way to typeset a form or other document generated with data in $\LaTeX$. However, there’s also the quick-and-dirty method of creating a regular $\LaTeX$ document every time in a script using some sort of string concatenation and then typesetting this, which also has its merits. When a class file is used, the class describes the document look and structure; a new $\LaTeX$ document still needs to be created each time to define the data. Not writing a class file and placing the document look and structure typesetting code directly in the generation script isn’t as clean as the class method as it mixes styling with data, but it does make some things easier. The quick-and-dirty approach doesn’t require knowing the additional $\LaTeX$ language features needed for creating a class, using only what would use in a normal document. In particular, it is useful for automatically generating documents that change in structure based on the input data or other more complicated logic. This can obviously all be implemented as a $\LaTeX$ class since $\TeX$ is a Turing-complete language, but general purpose scripting languages such as Python are easier to use for this, particularly since most programmers use them much more often than they create complicated $\LaTeX$ classes. The quick-and-dirty approach trades the class method’s cleaner design for ease of script creation. However, if the form will ever be created by hand, the class method is definitely superior.